The state of Washington is among those that have special provisions in their registration code covering homeless offenders, but not all states have such provisions. The amendment required all states to implement Registration and Community Notification Laws by the end of Recidivism rates only measure how many people return to prison or are arrested for a new offense and do not measure how many people actually commit a new criminal offense some criminals commit new offenses after release from prison but do not get caught. A bill to create a publicly accessible registry for domestic violence offenders passed the Texas House of Representatives in , but was not voted on in the Texas Senate. However, the study also found that making sex offender registration publicly available may deter some potential first time sex offenders from committing an offense that would get them on the registry in the first place. Prior to Megan's death, only 5 states had laws requiring sex offenders to register their personal information with law enforcement.
A study found no evidence that New York's registry or notification laws reduced sexual offenses by rapists, child molesters, sexual recidivists, or first-time sex offenders. Sex offender registries in the United States Sign at the limits of Wapello, Iowa ; sex offender-free districts appeared as a result of Megan's Law. States running offense-based systems use the conviction offense or the number of prior offenses as the criteria for tier assignment. Depending on state, registration and notification systems may have special provisions for juveniles, habitual offenders or those deemed " sexual predators " by virtue of certain standards. Jacob Wetterling Act of [ edit ] Main article: Facebook and Instagram prohibit any convicted sex offender from accessing or contributing to their websites. Residency restrictions may even cause a sex offender's family to be homeless. However, the study also found that making sex offender registration publicly available may deter some potential first time sex offenders from committing an offense that would get them on the registry in the first place. At least one state Illinois reclassifies all registrants moving in the state into the highest possible tier Sexual Predator , regardless of the original tier of the person, leading to a lifetime registration requirement and being publicly labelled as a "Sexual Predator". Application to offenses other than felony sexual offenses[ edit ] Sex offender registration has been applied to crimes other than rape, child molestation, and child pornography offenses and is sometimes applied to certain non-sexual offenses. Sex offender registries in the United States consist of federal and state level systems designed to collect information of convicted sex offenders for law enforcement and public notification purposes. In addition, hundreds of counties and municipalities have passed local ordinances exceeding the state requirements,   and some local communities have created exclusion zones around churches , pet stores , movie theaters , libraries , playgrounds , tourist attractions or other "recreational facilities" such as stadiums , airports , auditoriums , swimming pools , skating rinks and gymnasiums, regardless of whether publicly or privately owned. For example, Colorado law requires minimum terms of registration based on the conviction offense for which the registrant was convicted or adjudicated but also uses a risk assessment for identifying sexually violent predators — a limited population deemed to be dangerous and subject to more extensive requirements. June In , California became the first state in the United States to have a sex offender registration program. In general, in states applying risk-based registry schemes, low-risk Tier I offenders are often excluded from the public disclosure. In some states only the highest risk Tier III offenders are subject to public disclosure, while some states also include moderate-risk Tier II offenders in public websites. The state of Washington is among those that have special provisions in their registration code covering homeless offenders, but not all states have such provisions. A majority of states apply systems based on conviction offenses only, where sex offender registration is mandatory if person pleads or is found guilty of violating any of the listed offenses. Information pertaining to names, addresses, physical description and vehicles are made public via official websites. Some sex offenders may come to view their central identity as being that of a sex offender due to the registry, and the more a sex offender views themselves as being a criminal the more likely they are to reoffend. The report also found that laws preclude registrants from homeless shelters within restriction areas. This made Agan question whether creating sex offender registries was a rational idea. All 50 states and District of Columbia maintain registries that are open to public via sex offender registration websites, although some registered sex offenders are visible to law enforcement only. Public disclosure of sex offender information[ edit ] Currently, only the United States allows, and more often than not requires public disclosure of offender information, regardless of individual risk. In general, offense-based classification systems are used for their simplicity and uniformity. Under polygraph, many apprehended sex offenders indicated that most of their offenses were not reported. Lanning argues that registration should be offender-based instead of offense-based:
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