In some US jurisdictions, the level of offender is reflecting the evaluated recidivism risk of the individual offender, while in others, the level is designated merely by the virtue of conviction, without assessing the risk level posed by the offender. Sex offenders who have completed probation or parole may also be subject to restrictions above and beyond those of most felons. Texas has not released anyone in the 15 years since the program was started. A study by professors from Columbia University and the University of Michigan found that having police-only sex offender registries e. A majority of states apply systems based on conviction offenses only, where sex offender registration is mandatory if person pleads or is found guilty of violating any of the listed offenses. Determining the tier level and whether or not a person would be subject to public disclosure, when relocating to another state, can be close to impossible without consulting an attorney or officials responsible for managing registration in the destination state, due to constantly changing laws and vagueness in some states legislative language. People listed on the register are prohibited from working with children or mentally disabled people, from managing institutions that care for children or mentally disabled people, and from being foster parents or adoptive parents. In some states non-sexual offenses such as unlawful imprisonment may require sex offender registration. Other countries do not make sex offender information public, unless the risk assessment has been conducted and the offender has been determined to pose a high risk of re-offending.
While these disparities in level of public disclosure among different states might cause unexpected problems after registration, they have also caused some registrants to move into locations where public disclosure of lower level offenders is not permitted, in order to avoid public persecution and other adverse effects of public disclosure they were experiencing in their original location. All 50 states and District of Columbia maintain registries that are open to public via sex offender registration websites, although some registered sex offenders are visible to law enforcement only. Persons who are registered Sex Offenders from other jurisdictions are not registered when they immigrate or are deported to Trinidad and Tobago. Some states scientifically evaluate the future risk of the offender and hide low-risk offenders from public. Offense classified as Tier I offense in one state with no public disclosure, might be classified as Tier II or Tier III offense in another, leading to considerably longer registration period and public disclosure. This proposed register has received support from both the ruling National Party and the opposition Labour Party. This Sex Offenders Registry is only accessible to the Police Service and other branches of government. In other states, offenders are categorized according to the tier level related to statute of conviction. Residency restrictions may even cause a sex offender's family to be homeless. However political lobby group the Sensible Sentencing Trust has criticised the proposed register for its lack of public access. Application to offenses other than felony sexual offenses[ edit ] Sex offender registration has been applied to crimes other than rape, child molestation, and child pornography offenses and is sometimes applied to certain non-sexual offenses. In some jurisdictions, they cannot live within a certain distance of places children or families gather. A majority of states apply systems based on conviction offenses only, where sex offender registration is mandatory if person pleads or is found guilty of violating any of the listed offenses. Some states appear to apply "catch-all" statutes for former registrants moving into their jurisdiction, requiring registration and public posting of information, even when the person has completed their original registration period. More than half of the children of sex offenders say that fellow students treat them worse due to a parent's RSO status. Kansas has publicly accessible registries of people convicted of both serious drug offenses and people convicted of crimes involving a weapon. Such places are usually schools, worship centers, and parks, but could also include public venues stadiums , airports, apartments, malls, major retail stores, college campuses, and certain neighborhoods unless for essential business. The results of the study were that sex offender recidivism was, in fact, slightly lower in states where sex offenders were not required to register. Florida requires all felons, regardless of the crime, to register with law enforcement for 5 years after release, although the Florida felon registry is not available to the general public. Montana, for example, has a publicly accessible violent offender registry that includes crimes such as aggravated assault, robbery, assaulting a police officer, both deliberate and non-deliberate homicide and a third conviction for domestic violence. The Human Rights Watch organization criticized these laws in a page report published in ,  and in another report in In the United States offenders are often classified in three categories: In some states, they may also be barred from voting after a sentence has been completed and, at the federal level, barred from owning firearms, like all felons. In some states non-sexual offenses such as unlawful imprisonment may require sex offender registration. Determining the tier level and whether or not a person would be subject to public disclosure, when relocating to another state, can be close to impossible without consulting an attorney or officials responsible for managing registration in the destination state, due to constantly changing laws and vagueness in some states legislative language. The Supreme Court of the United States has upheld sex offender registration laws twice, in two respects. For example, residency restrictions will make it harder for a sex offender's spouse and children, not just a sex offender themselves, to find housing.
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