In , she was legally recognized as such according to the Italian law on transsexualism Legge 14 aprile , n. After that, this same judiciary stated that the questura police office, where residence permits are issued should deliver a residence permit to a foreigner married with an Italian citizen of his same sex, and cited the ruling. Repression was a matter for the Catholic Church, and not the Italian State. Despite the fact that several bills on civil unions or the recognition of rights to unregistered couples had been introduced into the Parliament in the twenty years prior to , none had been approved owing to the strong opposition from the social conservative members of Parliament belonging to both coalitions. The bill was never made a priority of Parliament and was eventually dropped when a new parliament was elected after the Prodi Government lost a confidence vote.
However, during the post-war period, there have been at least three attempts to re-criminalise it. In , Danilo Giuffrida was awarded , euros compensation after having been ordered to re-take his driving test by the Italian Ministry of Infrastructure and Transport due to his sexuality; the judge said that the Ministry of Transport was in clear breach of anti-discrimination laws. Despite the fact that several bills on civil unions or the recognition of rights to unregistered couples had been introduced into the Parliament in the twenty years prior to , none had been approved owing to the strong opposition from the social conservative members of Parliament belonging to both coalitions. After that, this same judiciary stated that the questura police office, where residence permits are issued should deliver a residence permit to a foreigner married with an Italian citizen of his same sex, and cited the ruling. Namely the principle that homosexual conduct is an issue of morality and religion, and not criminal sanctions by the State. However, gender identity is not a part of official anti-discrimination law. In , a police officer was reportedly fired for cross-dressing in public while off duty. On the same day, a controversial amendment passed, which will protect free speech for politicians and clergymen. This did not, however, prevent the fascist authorities from targeting male homosexual behaviour with administrative punishment, such as public admonition and confinement; and gays were persecuted in the later years of the regime of Benito Mussolini ,  and under the Italian Social Republic of — On 7 July, the Justice Committee advanced a unified bill. LGBT history in Italy Italian unification in brought together a number of States which had all with the exception of two abolished punishment for private, non-commercial and homosexual acts between consenting adults as a result of the Napoleonic Code. Later the couple, appealed the decision to the Court of Cassation. The arrangements of the Rocco Code have remained in place over subsequent decades. In addition to this bill some deputies introduced another two bills. On 8 February , the Government led by Romano Prodi introduced a bill,  which would have granted rights in areas of labour law, inheritance, taxation and health care to same-sex and opposite-sex unregistered partnerships. On 21 July , the European Court of Human Rights ruled that in not recognizing any form of civil union or same-sex marriage in Italy, the country was violating international human rights. However, this legislation did not apply to the former Kingdom of the Two Sicilies , taking into account the "particular characteristics of those that lived in the south". The Italian Ministry of Interior appealed the decision and the Court of Appeal of Bologna reversed the trial decision. In , the Constitutional Court finally ruled the case in favour of the couple, allowing them to stay married. Lombardy , led by the centre-right House of Freedoms , officially declared their opposition to any recognition of same-sex relationships. The Armed Forces of Italy cannot deny men or women the right to serve within their ranks because of their sexual orientation, as this would be a violation of constitutional rights. Adoption is in principle permitted only to married couples who must be only opposite-sex couples. The couple asked the Civil Court of Modena to nullify the order of dissolvement of their marriage. With the unification, the former Kingdom of Sardinia extended its own criminalizing legislation to the rest of the newly born Kingdom of Italy. In , she was legally recognized as such according to the Italian law on transsexualism Legge 14 aprile , n. Some years later, one of the parties transitioned as a trans woman. In any case, it claimed, that most Italians were not interested in an issue only practised by less "healthy" and less "virile" foreigners.
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