For example, researchers still amalgamate bisexual people with homosexual people since they do not recognize the relevance of distinguishing between these subgroups Barker et al. Lack of Representation of Bisexuality in Dutch National Policies A brief review of the history of Dutch national policies shows that small steps have been taken towards addressing bisexuality, but that these have not been followed by a more bi-inclusive framing of same-sex sexuality. Here, we follow other scholars who have suggested employing this indicator in survey studies with a broad scope Kuyper a ; McDermott To our knowledge, in , there were no similar channels targeting bisexual young men. Compared to gay- and lesbian-identified people, bisexual-identified people are less open about their sexual orientation to people in their social network, report more internalized homonegativity, report more mental health problems, score higher on suicidality, and show lower LGB community identification and community involvement Barker et al. To minimize the expected impact of a convenience sample on representativeness and selective non-response, the aim was to reach as many people as possible to fill in the survey. We argue that the absence of comprehensive attention for bisexuality is related to the underlying equality and rights-based approach of Dutch national LGBT policies. Each method was used to answer specific questions which led to complementary knowledge and a better overall insight Creswell and Plano Clark The writing of memos during the coding process was conducive to generating and promoting transparency in the interpretation of findings Friese
We also assessed whether the space for a bisexual identity was limited and whether bisexual-identified people felt they could openly express their bisexuality. The interviews were semi-structured. Using quantitative data, we investigated whether there were any differences between sexual attraction subgroups in terms of openness about their sexual attraction, perceived acceptance, and perceived experiences of victimization, suicidality, visibility discomfort, and self-esteem. We used qualitative data to explore the views and experiences of young bisexual-identified and non-bisexual-identified SSA people on sexual orientation in general and bisexuality in particular. The bisexual community is thriving There is a bi community, and when you come out as bisexual, you will meet more bi people. Prospective participants were given information about the study and its aims and content on the survey website as well as by e-mail prior to participating in the in-depth interviews. The quantitative data collection was based on convenience sampling. Prior to the analyses of the outcome variables, we therefore tested differences between sexual attraction subgroups for potentially relevant variables which we had identified in previous studies: For mother and father, responses ranged from 0 Not accepted to 4 Completely accepted. This literature demonstrates differences between sexual orientation subgroups, yet these studies generally do not take into account other factors which may explain these differences. However, if you say it confidently, people are more likely to believe you. It is therefore not clear whether differences remain after controlling for other relevant factors. This was followed by additional multivariate analyses to determine whether differences remained significant after controlling for potentially relevant factors age, gender, importance of their sexual attraction in their lives, degree of openness about their sexual attraction, and having relationship experience with a same-sex partner. Unique issues for bisexual-identified young people were identified as follows: In addition, a promotional team recruited attendees at LGB-focused parties and events in a number of geographical regions in the Netherlands. Based on these findings, we then put forward a number of suggestions for more bi-inclusive policies. When tests were significant, variables were included as control variables in the multivariate analyses. I, for one, identify as bisexual, pansexual, and queer. In addition, for several years, the government has provided financial support to organizations specifically targeting bisexual people. We distinguished between three subgroups: However, heterosexuality remains the norm and victimization of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people LGBT is not uncommon Keuzenkamp ; Keuzenkamp et al. A quantitative Web-based survey was followed by in-depth interviews and samples were nested for the quantitative and qualitative data components. But just like you, they may indeed be bisexual. A fixed sexual orientation, homogenization, and ordinariness of LGBT people are projected in these policies, but this may not necessary reflect how bisexual people consider themselves or how lesbian and gay people see bisexual people. Although current national policies do not devote specific attention to bisexuality, this is not to say that governmental attention for bisexuality is non-existent. To minimize the expected impact of a convenience sample on representativeness and selective non-response, the aim was to reach as many people as possible to fill in the survey. Informed by this empirical data, we discuss the outcomes of the three central questions in dialogue with each other and offer suggestions for more bi-inclusive policies.
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